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  3. Evaluation : Meaning, Principles and Functions (With Diagram)

Any new gallery needs to communicate with its intended audiences and learning programmes need to be fit for their participants. Evaluation, through consultation or prototyping, aims to check that assumptions about understanding, attitudes, beliefs and motivation are valid. Several methods and stages of evaluation are used in this process:. This is a method of collecting statistical information.

This type of evaluation is less detailed and used with large numbers of people, often using tick boxes or multiple choice.

Questions might be:. This is a method of collecting attitudinal information. It is important in assessing the likely enthusiasm for projects. It identifies barriers and how to overcome them, generates new ideas, tests visual concepts, explores motivations, attitudes and lifestyle needs and compares different approaches. Qualitative evaluation is more in depth and uses smaller numbers of people. This type of evaluation uses methods such focus groups and in depth interviews, with semi-structured and open-ended responses.

Front-end evaluation takes place at the stage of initial concept development.

It provides information about the intended audience, partners etc. It determines the direction of the project from the visitor angle. This implies some kind of quantitative scale that captures the range of values with which you will assess concepts.

Measuring concept fitness

You don't want a scale with a large range - such as from 0 to - because that is too fine for the information available. Remember that your concepts are only vaguely defined at this point - they're only concepts after all - so the level of precision available in a large-range scale will lead to unnecessary and arbitrary assessments.

The world's leading museum of art and design

Large-range scales are too precise for our needs. On the other hand, you don't want a scale with too few values on it either, otherwise you won't be able to distinguish sufficiently well between the alternative concepts. Over time, design researchers have found that a five-point scale provides sufficiently fine measurements without being overly precise.

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It's convenient to range the scale around zero because zero is a naturally neutral value, negative numbers naturally suggest worse performance, and positive numbers naturally suggest superior performance. This is not the only possible scale. The exponential scale offsets the conservatism by attributing significantly higher scores to superior features of a design.

Other industries have their own scales, which have typically been developed in response to industry-specific empirical research. You need to assess a concept with respect to every requirement. This can be a long and difficult task. Considering that the concepts are quite vaguely defined, it is very inefficient to perform such a detailed evaluation. One can perform an easier evaluation without any necessary loss in precision, by grouping the requirements according to the product characteristic s. Consider any PRS.

It can be treated roughly as a hierarchy: each product characteristic is the root of a hierarchy of functional requirement s, etc.


We can think of all the requirements under a PC as being in a group named by the PC. So far, we have assumed that all the requirements are of equal importance, but this generally isn't the case. In aerospace engineering, weight is far more significant than in, say, automotive engineering; safety is far more important in engineering medical products than in the engineering of office equipment.

If some requirements are more important than others, then their relative importance is bound to impact the assessment of concepts. This means that you have to evaluate the requirements to determine which ones are more important. Since the relative importance of requirements will impact how concepts are assessed, you need a scheme that will allow you to assign weights to requirements, such that a requirement with a heavier weight will contribute more significantly to the assessment of a specific concept.

There is a relatively simple way of estimating the relative importance of requirements - and thus assign weights to them - called pairwise comparison , which is based on using product characteristic s as labels for all the requirements related to each PC. Read about using pairwise comparison to rank requirements. Once you have a PRS , a set of concepts, a reference design, and a set of weighted PC s, you can begin to perform the evaluation of your concepts.

An excellent tool for performing this kind of analysis is a weighted decision matrix. It is a chart that captures every aspect of the assessment. Weighted decision matrices are used in many settings, even outside of engineering, because as its name implies, it is a tool to aid in general decision making. Financial institutions use this kind of tool to determine who should or should not get a loan; health organizations use them to determine which implementations of policies is best suited to specific situations; even the process of medical triage assumes a certain decision making process that can be modelled with decision matrices.

They can even be used to decide what kind of vacation you should take. Read more about using a weighted decision matrix to assess your design concepts. This section describes, step by step, how to carry out a concept evaluation. This activity should be done as a collaborative exercise with all team members present. You will use a weighted decision matrix to guide and document your concept evaluation.

Set up a blank WDM using a spreadsheet. Evaluation on the other hand includes both quantitative description measurement and qualitative description Non measurement along with value judgements. This relationship between measurement, non measurement and evaluation can be illustrated with the help of following diagram 1.

Managing Children with Clubfoot Course - Evaluation Report - Physiopedia

Therefore evaluation process must be carried out with effective techniques. A teacher must be clear about the purpose of evaluation. Before selecting the achievement measures the intended learning out comes must be specified clearly. It is not possible to evaluate all the aspect of achievement with the help of a single technique. For the better evaluation the techniques like objective tests, essay tests, observational techniques etc. Evaluation can be done with the help of simple observation or highly developed standardized tests.

But whatever the instrument or technique may be it has its own limitation. There may be measurement errors. An achievement test may not include the whole course content. Error in measurement can also be found due to students guessing on objective tests.

Evaluation : Meaning, Principles and Functions (With Diagram)

Error is also found due to incorrect interpretation of test scores. Therefore while selecting an evaluation technique one must be well aware of the strength and limitations of the techniques. The evaluation technique is used to take decisions about the learner.