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  1. New Books - - Addiction - Wiley Online Library
  2. Meaning of "aqua vitae" in the Polish dictionary
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As a postdoctoral associate at the University of Oregon, he then studied conjugated organic polymers under Prof. James E. In , he accepted a teaching position at the University of Oregon, before moving to join the faculty at NDSU in Active in the fields of materials chemistry and the history of chemistry, his research interests include the design and synthesis of conjugated materials, photovoltaics solar cells , organic light emitting diodes, the application of history to chemical education, the history of materials, and chemical technology in antiquity. As both author and editor, Prof.

New Books - - Addiction - Wiley Online Library

Rasmussen has contributed to books in both materials and history and has published more than 50 research papers. Show More Show Less. He was born in the Upper Egyptian city of Panopolis, now called Akhmim. Zosimos is thought to have written twenty-eight books about alchemy; alas, most of what he wrote is now lost.

We have only scraps: the prologue to a book titled On Apparatus and Furnaces , several chapters from other works, and scattered excerpts.


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Despite the fragmentary nature of what survives and the difficulty in interpreting it, these writings provide the best window we have onto Greek alchemy. These early texts establish many concepts and styles that would remain fundamental for much of later alchemy. He describes a wide array of useful apparatus—for distillation, sublimation, filtration, fixation, and so forth—in great detail.

Many of these instruments are adapted from cooking utensils or items used in perfumery or other crafts.

Meaning of "aqua vitae" in the Polish dictionary

Zosimos did not devise all these instruments himself, indicating how developed practical chrysopoeia must already have become by the start of the fourth century AD. The writings of his predecessors form a key resource for him, and he cites them frequently. One of the most prominent authorities is named Maria—sometimes called Maria Judaea or Mary the Jew—and Zosimos credits her with the development of a broad range of apparatus and techniques. It is her name that remains attached to the bain-marie or bagno maria of French and Italian cookery. Several of the pieces of apparatus Zosimos describes—for example, one called the kerotakis —are designed to expose one material to the vapors of another.

Indeed, he seems particularly interested in the action of vapors on solids. This interest is partly grounded on practical observations. Ancient craftsmen knew that the vapors released by heated cadmia or calamine, a zinc-containing earth could turn copper golden by transforming it into brass an alloy of zinc and copper. The vapors of mercury and arsenic whiten copper to a silvery color. Perhaps knowledge of these color changes induced Zosimos to seek analogous processes that would bring about true transmutations. Guiding theories are certainly discernible in his writings.

Today there is a common misconception that alchemists worked more or less blindly—stumbling about mixing a little of this and a little of that in a random search for gold. This notion is far from the truth; already with Zosimos we can identify theoretical principles that guided his practical work, as well as practical observations that supported or modified his theories. Many theoretical frameworks for alchemy would develop in various times and places, and these frameworks both supported the possibility of transmutation and suggested avenues for pursuing it practically.

In one passage, he notices the disparate effects of sulfur vapor on different substances, and expresses his astonishment that while the vapor is white and whitens most substances, when it is absorbed by mercury, which is itself white, the resulting composition is yellow.

Clearly, Zosimos was a careful observer who thought deeply about what he witnessed experimentally. Follower of David Teniers II. John of Rupescissa or Jean de Roquetaillade was born about in the Auvergne, in central France; he attended the University of Toulouse and then became a Franciscan friar. In doing so he was influenced by the ideas of a branch of the order known as the Spirituals, who opposed the increasing institutionalization of the Franciscan order as it grew, claiming that it had abandoned the ideals and rule of its founder, St.

Francis of Assisi. The Spirituals, who saw themselves as the true followers of St.

Francis, embraced radical poverty and fiercely criticized church hierarchy and the more mainstream Conventual Franciscans. The Spirituals were also caught up in apocalyptic fervor and a fondness for prophecies, believing that the Antichrist was about to appear.


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It might seem incongruous that a man so fervently committed to the ideal of poverty would also devote himself to finding the secret of making gold. Yet at the start of his Book of Light , written about , John states clearly why he studied chrysopoeia and why he decided to write about it. I considered the coming times predicted by Christ in the Gospels, namely, of the tribulations in the time of the Antichrist, under which the Roman Church shall be tormented and have all her worldly riches despoiled by tyrants.

My intention is to be helpful to the good of the holy Roman Church and briefly to explain the whole truth about the Stone. True to his Spiritual Franciscan views, John says that the tribulation of the Antichrist is at hand, and that the church will need every form of help to withstand it; that help includes alchemy. John was not the only Franciscan who thought this way. The same concern about the coming of the Antichrist lay behind much of what Roger Bacon—also a Franciscan friar—wrote to the pope about sixty years earlier: the church will need mathematical, scientific, technological, medical, and other knowledge to resist and survive the assault of the Antichrist.

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We are well familiar with the use of science and technology for national security; in the case of John and Roger, we find a medieval precedent that includes alchemy as a means of ecclesiastical security. So there you have it. To the best of my knowledge, sometime around the late 13th century as the process of distillation became more refined and purer spirits were possible, the term "aqua vitae" became popular among European chemists. The unrelated term "alcohol" did not come into use until the 16th century.

This comes from the Greek "kohl" referring to a finely powdered form of antimony trisulphide used as eye makeup in antiquity. Arabic added their "al" prefix for "al-kohl". It then became a term for very fine powder. Then a fine part of anything. Then anything you pulverized or distilled.

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In the mids, Paracelsus Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim to his pals is used "alkohol vini" or "the subtle part of wine" to refer to spirits distilled from wine. The "vini" wine part was dropped, and we have the modern "alkohol". Etymologically unrelated to "aqua vitae". Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. What is the earliest known reference to the phrase 'water of life'? Ask Question. Asked 2 years, 6 months ago. Active 2 years, 6 months ago. Viewed times. Latin - Aqua Vitae French - Eau de Vie Gaelic - Uisce Betha As a hobbyist in fine alcohol I'm curious of both the earliest known reference to this phrase, as well as it's likely origins, but the best I can come up with is 'likely much earlier than the Medieval period' from Wikipedia.

Canadian Coder Canadian Coder 1 1 silver badge 13 13 bronze badges. I feel there's two questions here.